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Doctor insights on: Msh2 Gene Sequencing

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Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer?

Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer?

We're Getting There: In the past, we used anatomic staging alone (tumor size, lymph node involvement) to guide rx. Gene profiling allows us a completely separate measure of prognosis, and, more importantly, can predict who may or may not benefit from different chemotherapy agents. In the future, we will hopefully be able to tailor our rx to the specific cancer being treated: the elusive personalized medicine. ...Read more

Genetic (Definition)

From a medical standpoint, "genetic" refers to the potential heritability of various medical conditions. While some conditions are inevitable (at some point in one's life) as a consequence of simple genetic heritability (eg huntington's disease), a large number of medical conditions (including all behaviorial health disorders) are the expressed final pathway of a ...Read more


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What is the difference in gene sequencing tests vs gene deletion/duplication tests? Should one type of genetic test be done before the other?

What is the difference in gene sequencing tests vs gene deletion/duplication tests?  Should one type of genetic test be done before the other?

Depends: Sequencing is like reading war and peace letter by letter, and deletion/duplication testing is like seeing if a chapter is completely missing or present as an extra copy. Which first? Depends on the condition. For duchenne muscular dystrophy, look for deletions first. For brca, sequence first. Your clinical geneticist can discuss the strategy with you. ...Read more

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Etiology of DNA mutations?

Etiology of DNA mutations?

Replication error: Most changes in dna come from errors in the duplication of the dna. But changes can occur in the structure from radiation and some chemicals especially those used in chemotherapy. Most mutations are harmless, some are tracked down by your normal reparative mechanism but a few can cause trouble including cancer. ...Read more

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What are germline gene alterations?

What are germline gene alterations?

Inheritable: "germline" refers to genes that are present in every cell of the body from conception or shortly afterwards, including sperm/ ova, and thus can be passed down to offspring. This term is used to distinguish these types of inherited genetic mutations from those that are not inherited - not present in the dna of sperm or ova. ...Read more

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Describe microrna gene expression deregulation in human breast cancer?

Describe microrna gene expression deregulation in human breast cancer?

Can't do in 400: The study of micro-rnas is cutting-edge and extremely arcane and you need to go directly to pubmed or one of the other big ways to access the scientific data. If someone is offering a breast cancer treatment to re-regulate your micro-rna's, call your district attorney. Glad you have an inquiring mind and i wish you luck with your project. ...Read more

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What chromosomal mutation results in alagille syndrome?

What chromosomal mutation results in alagille syndrome?

ALGS: Alagille syndrome (algs) is a complex multisystem disorder involving primarily the liver, heart, eyes, face, and skeleton. The two genes in which mutations are known to cause algs are jag1 and notch2. Mutations in jag1 are known to cause about 94%-96% of cases of algs. Mutations in notch2 are known to cause algs in 1%-2% of individuals. ...Read more

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Cause of a positive monoclonal T cell beta gene rearrangement?

Cause of a positive monoclonal T cell beta gene rearrangement?

Tumor: Monoclonal proliferation of lymphoid cells is usually an indication of tumor of the lymphoid tissue. ...Read more

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Can you tell me why PCR and DNA sequencing provided no results for brent's pathogen.?

Can you tell me why PCR and DNA sequencing provided no results for brent's pathogen.?

Homework: This is the last line from a long homework problem that's already all over other answer boards. It's not appropriate to bring it here, and without the rest of the problem, we can't answer it anyway. ...Read more

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Is hemophilia a gene mutation?

Is hemophilia a gene mutation?

Yes: Both hemophilia a and b are due to mutations in genes on the x chromosome. ...Read more

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Is factor 7 gene mutation (heterozygote) thrombophila?

No: Factor 7 mutation is very rare and causes increased risk of bleeding (not being able to clot). Factor 5 deficiency is the most common form of thrombophilia (increased risk of abnormal clotting). ...Read more

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What chromosome is mutated in sickle cell disease?

What chromosome is mutated in sickle cell disease?

11: The beta globin gene is mutated in sickle cell anemia; it is located on chromosome 11. ...Read more

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Does alpha thalassemia trait have gene therapy available?

Does alpha thalassemia trait have gene therapy available?

No: Alpha thalassemia trait only causes mild anemia, and the person usually has no symptoms. Gene therapy is not available and would not be needed. ...Read more

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What is hemagglutinin (ha) gene and neuraminidase (na) gene?

What is hemagglutinin (ha) gene and neuraminidase (na) gene?

Flu virus genes: The hemaglutinin and neuraminidase genes are in influenza viruses. They code for proteins that are found on the surface of the flu virus. The viruses are named according to which type of hemaglutinin and neuraminidase proteins are on their surfaces (for example: h1n1 or h7n9). ...Read more

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How do dna, mutation, genotype, phenotype, and natural selection interconnect to cause evolution?

How do dna, mutation, genotype, phenotype, and natural selection interconnect to cause evolution?

Modern synthesis: It's as well-established as anything in science, but would take more than 400 characters to explain. You owe it to yourself, as an educated person who must participate in community decision making, to understand it. There are a huge number of good books on the subject. Best wishes. ...Read more

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Can gene thereapy alter a living persons genome?

Can gene thereapy alter a living persons genome?

No: Not at this point yet. The aim of such therapy would be not to alter the human genome but rather to correct it to make it as closer o normal as possible. ...Read more

Dr. Jay Park Dr. Park
2 doctors agreed:
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What chromosome carries the gene for sickle cell anemia?

Dr. Jay Park Dr. Park
2 doctors agreed:

Chromosome No. 11: Point mutation at beta-globin gene located at chromosome no. 11 results in production of defective hemoglobin, sickle hemoglobin. ...Read more

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Should I screen my children for ovarian cancer genes since it seems to be so deadly? There is no history in my family.

Should I screen my children for ovarian cancer genes since it seems to be so deadly?  There is no history in my family.

No: There is no simple screen for ovarian cancer susceptibility beyond the breast-ovarian cancer gene (brca) testing that costs $2600-3300. Only families with cases of ovarian or early onset (<45) breast cancer should consider this testing. ...Read more

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What is the difference in gene sequencing tests vs gene deletion/duplication tests? Should one type of genetic test be done before the other?

Depends: Sequencing is like reading war and peace letter by letter, and deletion/duplication testing is like seeing if a chapter is completely missing or present as an extra copy. Which first? Depends on the condition. For duchenne muscular dystrophy, look for deletions first. For brca, sequence first. Your clinical geneticist can discuss the strategy with you. ...Read more

See 1 more doctor answer
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Can you tell me why PCR and DNA sequencing provided no results for brents pathogen.?

Can you tell me why PCR and DNA sequencing provided no results for brents pathogen.?

Homework: This is a question from a homework problem in microbiology that's already all over the answer boards. It's not appropriate to bring it here. ...Read more

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Can you tell me why PCR and DNA sequencing provided no results for brent's pathogen.?

Homework: This is the last line from a long homework problem that's already all over other answer boards. It's not appropriate to bring it here, and without the rest of the problem, we can't answer it anyway. ...Read more

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Sev. Dev. Delay -array comparative genetic hybridization (acgh) results indicate no abnormalities- would full genetic sequencing be advised (knome)?

Not necessarily: Newer genetic tests provide incite into a variety of issues like autism & other developmental variations.Yet causation remains elusive in many cases.Sadly, an injury to the developing brain centers from an unrecognized event in an otherwise normal pregnancy is a likely cause for many.This occurs in at least half of cerebral palsy cases & dev.Delay could be produced in others, yet hard to prove. ...Read more

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How much DNA is needed for nanopore sequencing?

How much DNA is needed for nanopore sequencing?

A future scientist: How much do you think is required? a single strand? A single molecule? I encourage you to find the answer. Best of wishes to your future endeavors. ...Read more

Amanda Xi Dr. Xi
6 doctors agreed:
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What is the genetic cause of hnpcc

Amanda Xi Dr. Xi
6 doctors agreed:
What is the genetic cause of hnpcc

Gene mutation: Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer or lynch syndrome is caused by a mutation in a "mismatch repair gene, " or a gene that codes for a protein which recognizes and repairs mistakes during dna replication. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion (so having 1 mutated gene is enough to increase your lifetime cancer risk). ...Read more

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How much does the hnpcc genetic test cost these days?

Depends: The cost of genetic testing is a moving target these days as the costs of sequencing has come down substantially. Several companies are offering panels of clinically relevant genes including genes that increase risk of colon cancer such as the hnpcc genes. An example of a company is ambry genetics. A genetic counselor can help you research different panels and costs. ...Read more

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Who should undergo genetic counseling for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (hnpcc)?

Who should undergo genetic counseling for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (hnpcc)?

Family history: There are a number of different inherited defects that cause hnpcc. A person with strong family history of colon cancer, occurring at a young age should seek counseling. ...Read more

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Do your genes determine your personality?

Do your genes determine your personality?

Nature and nurture: Like most things, both genetic susceptibility and environmental influences together effect a number of human traits, including personality. ...Read more

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Can I control which genes will be turned on?

Can I control which genes will be turned on?

Gene activation: Turning on and off different genes is a complex process. Some genes turn on 50 years after birth and some are switched off at different phases of our life. We stop growing, we develop hypertension and we may have a genetically associated disease or cancer. There is no way i know of to turn genes on or off. Maybe thats how exercise and weight loss work though. Who knows. ...Read more

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How can the changing environment affect my genes?

Genetics: You cannot change your genes, but you can definitely affect the expression of your genes - by about 75% in many cases. It depends on the gene. Environment would include many things, like consumption of certain nutrients, toxins, hormones, stress, sleep, etc. Epigenetics refers to the expression of your genes. ...Read more

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How powerful are thrifty genes and what do they do?

Trifty genes: It is a hypothesis. Thrifty genes have no use in a well fed society but may be a factor in overweight. More research is required to answer that conclusively. ...Read more

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Please tell me, could mutated genes pass on to my kids?

Please tell me, could mutated genes pass on to my kids?

Yes: We are all thought to carry at least 3-4 copies of a gene variant that would produce a significant metabolic or structural disorder if paired with a similar defect at conception.Most taboos about having kids with close relatives are based on this risk/experience. If you have a defect, the type of risk varies with the genetics involved.Those with dominant defects have 50% risk/conception. ...Read more

Gene (Definition)

A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of dna that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism. Genes undergo mutation when their ...Read more


Dna (Definition)

Dna are the coding molecules found in all living things on earth which contain the instructions on how to build living things. Its is comprised the nucleotide molecules which are ...Read more