Doctor insights on:
Botulism Toxin Assay
Yes but...: In neither conditions, recovery from the disease does not confer immunity because the toxin is usually not present in amount large enough to induce adequate immune response. ...Read more
Poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms;man-made substances created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist ludwig brieger (1849–1919). For a toxic substance not produced within living organisms, "toxicant" and "toxics" are also sometimes used.. Toxins can be small ...Read more
What is the immune response to clostridium botulinum, clostridium tetani or clostridium perfringes?
Do your homework: Your instructors will expect you to answer your homework questions from the assigned reading. The wording and jargon will be recognizable and you will be dinged if you do not.This information site is not set up to provide a shortcut for homework answers. ...Read more
Clostridium difficile toxin b gene present
clostridium dificile antigen presen. Would u no how severe the c diff is?
Have diarrhea or no?: C.Difficile is pathogenic in older children & adults (whose colonic microflora are altered by antibiotics, chemotherapy, salmonella/shigella). C.Diff causes diarrhea w/pseudomembranous & other colitis, complicates inflammatory bowel disease, causes fulminant transmural extension, perforation with peritonitis, toxic megacolon. Treatment, & confirmation of post-treatment eradication, is recommended. ...Read more
Vaccine: Tetanus toxoid is an inactive (meaning it can't give you tetanus) ingredient in the tetanus vaccine. It is important to get this vaccine every 10 years as an adult. Also, consider getting the Tdap vaccine (with pertussis or whooping cough) instead if you are around young children under the age of 1-2 years old to help prevent them from getting pertussis. ...Read more
FDA approved: Botulinum toxin is not harmful when used as recommended. Botox, Botox cosmetic, dysport, xeomin, (incobotulinumtoxin a) Myobloc (botulinum toxin b) are examples of botulinum products that are fda approved and have been used worldwide in many millions of people with few significant ill-effects. Dosing does matter. More is not better. ...Read moreSee 4 more doctor answers
No: Look for another cause.Get a more detailed answer ›
Dangerous bacteria: Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are bacteria found in various livestock (cows, swine, etc) which can lead to dangerous food borne illness.Recent outbreaks in Europe are due to a specific type of STEC called strain 0104:h4. In the USA E. coli o157:h7 is a more common strain.Each produces a toxin (shiga) which can disrupt colon cells causing bloody diarrhea or destroy kidney cells & lead to HUS. ...Read moreSee 2 more doctor answers
Yes it is: If food is contaminated by salmonella, anyone who eats that food can become ill. Also it can be transmitted person-to-person by the fecal-oral route. Strict hand-washing is needed. Also keeping raw meat, etc separate from other foods is wise -- as is having separate cutting boards, etc. http://tinyurl.com/k8894u5. ...Read more
Do inactivated rabies vaccines elicit cell mediated immunity(t-cells) aside from just antibody production?
Activated rabies vac: Yes. They activate dendritic cells and presumptively enhance immune function in that fashion. J virol 2011 feb; 85(4) :1634-44. ...Read more
Rotavirus, and varicella vaccines contain fetal bovine serum. dtap, hebb, ipv, and typhoid vaccines contain bovine casein. what can vegans do?
Overall picture best: While there is discussion in the vegan community about vaccines containing animal products, most people agree that there are some situations where there is no "vegan" alternative, and it is OK to do the "non-vegan" thing. This is one of them. The benefit of vaccines is proven. They are worth it. ...Read more
Intoxication mostly: Classical food botulism is caused by preformed botulinum toxin, usually a, b, or e, ingested in food not cooked or stored correctly, such as with home canning. Despite this, so-called infant botulim is caused by ingestion of bacillus botulinum spores with germination in the immature intestinal tract and elaboration of toxin. Same thing can occur in wound botulism. ...Read more