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Doctor insights on: Bordetella Dna

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Human immunodeficiency virus--can it mutate?

Human immunodeficiency virus--can it mutate?

Yes: Hiv mutates in response to HIV therapy. If you're being treated without a complete response (partial suppression), the virus can mutate so it can replicate in the presence of the drugs. This usually happens in people who don't take their medications properly. They can then transmit the mutant virus to others. Spontaneous mutation (mutation independent of therapy) has not been a big problem. ...Read more

Dna (Definition)

Dna are the coding molecules found in all living things on earth which contain the instructions on how to build living things. Its is comprised the nucleotide molecules which are ...Read more


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What disease can bordetella pertussis cause?

What disease can bordetella pertussis cause?

Whooping cough: Whooping cough, formally called pertussis, is a respiratory disease that in its classic form in small children can produce paroxysms of cough strong enough to fracture a rib and long enough to cause lack of oxygen in the body. It is especially harmful in infants less than 12 months old who are not yet immunized. Because of waning immunity from vaccine, boosters are now recommended in adults. ...Read more

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Etiology of DNA mutations?

Etiology of DNA mutations?

Replication error: Most changes in dna come from errors in the duplication of the dna. But changes can occur in the structure from radiation and some chemicals especially those used in chemotherapy. Most mutations are harmless, some are tracked down by your normal reparative mechanism but a few can cause trouble including cancer. ...Read more

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How is DNA mutated by carcinogens ?

How is DNA mutated by carcinogens ?

DNA breakdown: Carcinogens can cause cells to rapidly divide in response to the continual attack on their survival. With this high cell turnover coves oxidative/free radical damage (stealing of electrons) and in many case errors in dna sequencing resulted in a mutated dna stand. The body sees this imperfect dna strand as a foreign invader and eliminates it through the immune system. ...Read more

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How can bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) reproduce?

How can bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) reproduce?

Sugar/water/mucous: The human respiratory system provides a luxurious collection of sugar, protein & water in the form of airway mucous.This provides ample nutrition for whooping cough & a multitude of other germs. ...Read more

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Human papilloma virus vaccine for boys ok?

Human papilloma virus vaccine for boys ok?

Highly recommended: The hpv vaccine has been well tolerated. It's recommended for boys at 11 or 12 through age 21 but can be given as young as 9 (and through age 26 for those at higher risk). It reduces the risk of anal cancer in boys and girls as well as the risk of cervical cancer in girls. Hopefully it will reduce some other hpv related cancers. The Gardasil hpv also reduces sexually transmitted warts by 90%. ...Read more

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Hepatitis c (HCV) antibody is reactive. The hepatitis C Recombinant Immunoblat Assay(riba) confirmation test is non reactive.Is antibody false positiv

Hepatitis c (HCV) antibody is reactive. The hepatitis C Recombinant Immunoblat Assay(riba) confirmation test is non reactive.Is antibody false positiv

Well : A positive hepatitis C antibody test with a negative or in a test usually is not a false positive that usually means someone had hepatitis C infection and their body cleared the infection and they are now immune to hepatitis C. Do a Healthtap visit or see a primary care physician for specific diagnosis ...Read more

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Hepatitis b antibody.Standard 5 item HBV test, only HBV surface antibody present. How immune is this to a partner of HBV carrier status through sex?

Hepatitis b antibody.Standard 5 item HBV test, only HBV surface antibody present. How immune is this to a partner of HBV carrier status through sex?

Foolish: If someone is actively and acutely infected with hep b, even the idea of considering unprotected sexual intercourse is ridiculous. Just because immunization status shows immunity to hep b, this is not a 100% guarantee and there are still risks. ...Read more

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Is human t cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus (htlv-1) contagious?

Is human t cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus (htlv-1) contagious?

Yes: Both htlv-1 and htlv-2 are spread by sexual transmission, from mother to child, and by exposure to infective blood through transfusions and injection drug use. In this respect the virus is contagious. It does not appear it is transmitted in any other way. ...Read more

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hepatitis b surface antigen reactive and hepatitis b surface antibody nonreactive and core antibody total reactive and HBV DNA detected sir plz reply?

 hepatitis b surface antigen reactive and hepatitis b surface antibody nonreactive and core antibody total reactive and HBV DNA detected sir plz reply?

You carry hep B: I am assuming you feel well and this was a surprise finding. There are millions of people like yourself. You will require lifelong health care for it unless / until a means of eradicating it is found. You pose no danger to a partner who is immunized. ...Read more

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In what viral group is human papilloma virus classified?

In what viral group is human papilloma virus classified?

HumanPapillomaVirus: Human papilloma viruses is the name of a large group of viruses. There are about 100 subtypes of human papilloma viruses; almost half can occasionally cause cancer. For example, the virus that causes ordinary skin warts (including plantar warts) is called hpv-1. Two others, hpv-16 and hpv-18, are responsible for a majority of cervical cancers and are components of both of the hpv vaccines. ...Read more

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How does bordetella pertussis infect and attack cells?

How does bordetella pertussis infect and attack cells?

Whooping cough: This bacteria causes whooping cough and it is very contagious. It is easy to contract from a person who is infected and is coughing and sneezing. ...Read more

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Which of these 3 hep c antibody screening tests(methodology)is the most accurate: Architect Anti-HCV, Advia Centauer HCV or Roche Eclia?

Which of these 3 hep c antibody screening  tests(methodology)is the most accurate: Architect Anti-HCV,  Advia Centauer HCV or Roche Eclia?

About equal: All three methods are FDA approved and about equally accurate. If you have concern about active Hep C infection, get a Hep C nucleic acid test. For good health - Have a diet rich in fresh vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk and milk products, nuts, beans, legumes, lentils and small amounts of lean meats. Avoid saturated fats. Drink enough water daily, so that your urine is mostly colorless. Exercise at least 150 minutes/week and increase the intensity of exercise gradually. Do not use tobacco, alcohol, weed or street drugs in any form. Practice safe sex. ...Read more

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How does azt (zidovudine) prevent replication of DNA from hiv?

How does azt (zidovudine) prevent replication of DNA from hiv?

Zidovudine (AZT): Is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. It prevents this viral coded enzyme from producing a dna intermediate from the viral RNA genome. ...Read more

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Does the HIV virus infect the germ cell spermatozoa?

Does the HIV virus infect the germ cell spermatozoa?

Likely not.: It is most likely that the virus may be in the white blood cells within the seminal fluid. Whether they nonspecifically adhere to the sperm as many dna viruses do, is less clear. Regardless, many fertility programs around the world have developed ways to "wash" sperm from HIV positive men and have used it to make healthy babies. ...Read more

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HBV test results: Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Nonreactive; Hepatitis B Core Antibodies: Reactive; HBV PCR: Negative. Need any medication or vaccine?

HBV test results: Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Nonreactive; Hepatitis B Core Antibodies: Reactive; HBV PCR: Negative.  Need any medication or vaccine?

Excellent question: and your story stumps many a doctor, often! :) a lot of the recommendations depend on - are you someone with risk factors for HBV? is this the first time that it has been checked? are your liver enzymes normal? are you about to undergo any procedures/ treatments that could put you at risk for HBV? If you have no sig risk factors, yes, I'd vaccinate you if there's potential for exposure. ...Read more

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Is ureaplasma urealyticum/parvum linked to hiv.

Is ureaplasma urealyticum/parvum linked to hiv.

No link: Ureaplasma parvum and most strains of U urealyticum are normal genital tract bacteria, present in the vagina or male urinary tract in at least 50% of healthy persons. UU sometimes causes nongonococcal/nonspecific urethritis in men (NGU, NSU), but no health problems in women are known. There is no link with HIV. Your nearest NHS GUM clinic is an excellent source for additional information. ...Read more