Dr. William Cromwell

Clinical Lipidology
Raleigh, NC
36 years experience male

Locations

Lipoprotein and Metabolic Disorders Institute

Raleigh, NC

Address

8300 Health Park Drive, Suite 320, Raleigh, NC
Directions

My office hours

Thursday: 8:00am - 5:00pm
Show more

Fax

9194298143

Insurances accepted

No Value

About

Bio

Since 1990 my practice has specialized in the management of cholesterol and lipoprotein disorders. Over the past 20 years I have served as the Medical Director or Chief of Divisions of Atherosclerosis and Lipoprotein disorders in several health care systems. In addition to being certified by the American Board of Clinical lipidology, I am a Fellow of the American Heart Association Council on Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, as well as a Fellow of the National Lipid Association. Academically, I am Adjunct Associate Professor in the Hypertension and Vascular Disease Center at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. I have served on expert panels publishing national recommendations on the evaluation and management of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, as well as clinical utilization of lipoprotein and inflammatory biomarkers. Additionally, I have published over 20 peer-reviewed book chapters, invited review articles, and original research in lipid and lipoprotein disorders.

Specialties
Doctors may have more than one area of specialty interest. Board certification in a specialty area means the doctor has completed formal training and has practice experience in that specialty, and has passed the certification examination from the corresponding accredited medical specialty board.

Clinical Lipidology

Family Medicine

Doctor Q&A

328 Answers
37 Agrees
The number of answers this doctor has agreed with.
A 60-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Depends on Particles: In addition to these answers, you should have LDL particle number (ldl-p) checked. Ldl cholesterol (ldl-c) is commonly used to "estimate" the number o... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Risk Can Be Changed: In addition to these answers, you should have LDL particle number (ldl-p) checked. Ldl cholesterol (ldl-c) is commonly used to "estimate" the number o... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 40-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Lipoproteins: High density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (ldl) are particles that carry cholesterol in the blood. The number of LDL and HDL particl... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 37-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
High due to LDL-P: High triglycerides (tg) and low hdl-c are markers for high LDL particle number (ldl-p). As tg rise ldl-p rises. However, when tg is high the amount of... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 38-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
It Can Be: Atherosclerosis, also known as “hardening of the arteries”, occurs when areas of the artery wall thicken in response to either increased modifiable (h... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 34-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Depends on Particles: Following entry into the artery wall low LDL particles directly promote development of atherosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries") and increase risk... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 30-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Normal VLDL function: Fatty liver due to disorders of lipid metabolism occur because fat (primarily triglyceride) synthesized in the liver is unable to be exported in vldl ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 41-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Depends on Particles: Cholesterol is transported in the blood inside lipoprotein particles. After entry into the artery wall low density lipoprotein (ldl) particles directl... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 43-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Atherosclerosis: Blockage is the result of worsening atherosclerosis. This begins when areas of the artery wall thicken due to risk factors like high LDL particle leve... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 30-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Influences Risk: Hdl does not directly affect the production or clearance of ldl, although both lipoproteins are important in understanding risk for heart attack and s... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Usually It Is: Low total cholesterol levels can be found in a variety of settings. For individuals who are not on lipid medications and are otherwise healthy this ca... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 46-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Arterial Plaque: Atherosclerosis, also known as “hardening of the arteries”, occurs when areas of the artery wall thicken in response to either increased modifiable (h... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 45-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Find and Fix Causes: The first step is to determine if the LDL is elevated due to an acquired medical condition. If treatable conditions are identified i would manage thos... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 59-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Depends on Omega-3: New research shows a different effect of epa on LDL versus dha+epa. Traditional fish oil products are dha+epa combinations and frequently raise LDL le... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 56-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Helpful New Med: Vascepa is a new fda approved omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) indicated for use with diet to reduce triglyceride (tg) levels over 500. It is different f... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 59-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Varies: Fish oils contain two active omega-3 fatty acids, dha and epa. Most fish oil products are a blend of these two fatty acids. At higher dose (4 grams pe... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 36-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Increase blood level: Vitamin d supplements are used to treat low 25 hydroxy vitamin d levels (< 30 ng/ml). Many different approaches are used ranging from a daily dose of ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 36-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Need information: Fasting status does not affect HDL cholesterol or total cholesterol mrasurements. After eating triglyceride levels increase. Since LDL cholesterol is ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 32-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Need Context: Carotid intima-media thickness (cimt) ultrasound measures the thickness of the arterial wall in several areas. Subclinical vascular disease is present... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Need To Know More: If your doctor determines you have high or moderate cardiovascular risk your will need to consider meds. Also, k not all high hdl-c states are cardio... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 42-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Need Information: Both labs and risk factors are important in knowing cardiovascular (cvd) risk. More than cholesterol, cvd is related to the number of LDL (ldl-p) and ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 28-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
LDL Cholesterol: Blood fats, cholesterol and triglyceride, are not soluble in water and are not transported in blood by themselves. Instead, lipids are carried by vari... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 20-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes: Fish oils contain two active omega-3 fatty acids, dha and epa. Most fish oil products are a blend of these two fatty acids. Dha + epa frequently incre... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 44-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Individual Values: Cardiovascular (cvd) risk is related to the number of LDL particles (ldl-p) and the number of HDL particles (hdl-p). When ldl-p is high or hdl-p is lo... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 36-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
There Are Many: Modifiable sources of atherosclerotic risk include smoking, elevated blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, obesity sedentary lifestyle, high LDL particl... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 28-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Statin - Rosuvastati: Crestor is the brand name for rosuvastatin, one of several "statin" medications that inhibit hmg co-a reductase, the rate limiting enzyme in cholester... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 50-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Indigestible Plant: Dietary fiber, the non-digestible part of plants in our diet, consists of soluble and insoluble fibers. Soluble fiber dissolves in water and functions... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 61-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Talk With Your Doc: This is a complex case with many considerations. I suggest talking to the treating physician about his/her recommendations for evaluation and manageme... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 28-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Omega-3 Fattty Acids: Fish oils contain two active omega-3 fatty acids, dha and epa. Most fish oil products contain both dha and epa, but supplements enriched in dha or epa... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 26-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Depends on Particles: Cardiovascular (cvd) risk is related to the number of LDL and HDL particles (ldl-p, hdl-p). Ldl can be estimated by cholesterol (ldl-c) or measured by... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 47-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Atherosclerosis: Following entry into the artery wall low LDL particles directly promote development of atherosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries") and increase risk... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 38-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Particle Question: High density lipoproteins (HDL) are particles that carry cholesterol in the blood. Hdl cholesterol (hdl-c) is a general estimate of HDL levels. Hdl is... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 31-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Not Usually: Hdl cholesterol (hdl-c) levels over 100 are vary uncommon. In general, high hdl-c may be the result of genetics (hyperalphalipoproteinemia), exercise,... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 42-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Lipid Deposits: Familial hypercholesterolemia (fh) is a genetic disorder causing decreased clearance of LDL from blood. Most patients get a defective gene from on par... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 47-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Healthy Diet: Avoid saturated and trans fats. Other fats (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated) are helpful and should constitute approximately 20 - 30 percent of to... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 21-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Estimate Lipoprotein: The lipid panel measures blood cholesterol and triglycerides (tg). These lipids are carried by lipoprotein particles such as tg-rich vldl and choleste... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 33-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Unusual over 100: Hdl cholesterol (hdl-c) levels over 100 are vary uncommon. In general, high hdl-c may be the result of genetics (hyperalphalipoproteinemia), exercise,... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 68-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes, Several Causes: Total cholesterol (tc) over 400 is seen patients with severe LDL elevations, as well as in certain high triglyceride settings. In addition to genetic ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 48-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Neither: Cholesterol in food is neither good or bad. The idea of good and bad cholesterol come from our use of cholesterol as an common way of estimating the q... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 38-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Nothing: Cholesterol is neither good or bad. The idea of good and bad cholesterol come from our use of cholesterol as an common way of estimating the quantity ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 30-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Can Be Taken Anytime: Some statins (pravachol, zocor, (simvastatin) mevacor) have very short half-lives (2-4 hours) and have a better effect if taken at night. This is beca... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 43-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Not Uncommon: Atherosclerosis begins when areas of the artery wall thicken due to risk factors like high LDL particle levels, smoking or high blood pressure. If the... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Niacin is best: No-flush Niacin can either refer to a slow release preparation or inositol. Slow release preparations are better tolerated than immediate release prod... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 54-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Depends on Particles: Cardiovascular (cvd) risk is related to LDL (ldl-p) and HDL (hdl-p) particle number. Because cholesterol in LDL and HDL particles is highly variable, ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 31-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes: There are no known interactions or problems in taking Lipitor (atorvastatin) and protandim at the same time.
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 46-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Lipid effect, flush: Niacin is a b vitamin that is often used to treat lipid (cholesterol and triglyceride) disorders. Nicotinamide is another vitamin in the vitamin b gro... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Find and Fix Causes: The first step is to determine if the LDL is elevated due to an acquired medical condition. If treatable conditions are identified i would manage thos... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 29-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Type of lipids: Hypercholesterolemia refers to high blood cholesterol. Hyperlipidemia refers to abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglyceride. While the two overlap,... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 27-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Many Considerations: High triglyceride (tg), low hdl-c and slightly high ldl-c is a common problem. Possible causes include; genetic issues (familial combined hyperlipidem... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 17-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
D3, 5000-8000 IU day: In vitamin d deficiency many physicians prefer a daily dose of 5, 000-8, 000 iu of vitamin d3 rather than 50, 000 iu once weekly due to poor absorptio... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.

Testimonials
Recommendations and Thank you notes are endorsements given from patients or other doctors.

4
Recommendations
767
Thank you notes
Dec 11, 2012
Very accurate & Thorough. Impressive.
Apr 30, 2013
Very high quality opinions.
HealthTap member
Mar 30, 2015
Dr. Cromwell is an amazing doctor! #nationaldoctorsday2015 #virtualflower1
HealthTap member
This was very helpful. Thanks! Just had Coratid Subclavian bypass bc both 100% blocked yet it’s in my aorta so this Info is very helpful. Have familial high cholesterol. Thank you very much!
HealthTap member
Thanks for your quick reply! Thanks dr. for your quick response. Am trying to see some lipidologist here in UAE. If you have aby idea then pls share. Am concerned.
HealthTap member
Thanks for your quick reply! I have been taking lipitor for 3 years and had many adverse reactions not making the connection I stopped taking it I feel grate.

Education & Training

Medical/Graduate school

Louisiana State University School of Medicine
Graduated 1987MD

Residency

Regional Medical Center of Hopkins County

Residency

Trover Clinic Foundation, Regional Medical Center

Awards

Mead Johnson Graduate Fellowship, American Academy of Family Physicians
Fellow, American Heart Association Council on Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Fellow, National Lipid Association

Affiliations

National Lipid Association (Southeast chapter)
American Heart Association
National Lipid Association

Publications

Measurement issues related to lipoprotein heterogeneity.
Development of tachyphylaxis among patients taking HMG CoA reductase inhibitors.
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