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Dr. William Cromwell

Clinical Lipidology
Raleigh, NC
36 years experience male

Locations

Lipoprotein and Metabolic Disorders Institute

Raleigh, NC

Address

8300 Health Park Drive, Suite 320, Raleigh, NC
Directions

My office hours

Saturday: Closed
Show more

Fax

9194298143

Insurances accepted

No Value

About

Bio

Since 1990 my practice has specialized in the management of cholesterol and lipoprotein disorders. Over the past 20 years I have served as the Medical Director or Chief of Divisions of Atherosclerosis and Lipoprotein disorders in several health care systems. In addition to being certified by the American Board of Clinical lipidology, I am a Fellow of the American Heart Association Council on Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, as well as a Fellow of the National Lipid Association. Academically, I am Adjunct Associate Professor in the Hypertension and Vascular Disease Center at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. I have served on expert panels publishing national recommendations on the evaluation and management of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, as well as clinical utilization of lipoprotein and inflammatory biomarkers. Additionally, I have published over 20 peer-reviewed book chapters, invited review articles, and original research in lipid and lipoprotein disorders.

Specialties
Doctors may have more than one area of specialty interest. Board certification in a specialty area means the doctor has completed formal training and has practice experience in that specialty, and has passed the certification examination from the corresponding accredited medical specialty board.

Clinical Lipidology

Family Medicine

Doctor Q&A

328 Answers
37 Agrees
The number of answers this doctor has agreed with.
A 41-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
LDL# Determines Risk: Ldl is a lipoprotein that can be quantified by measurement of cholesterol (LDL-C) or particle number (LDL-P). Due to variability in cholesterol contai... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 29-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Depends on Particles: Cardiovascular (CVD) risk is related to the number of LDL and HDL particles (LDL-P, HDL-P). LDL can be estimated by cholesterol (LDL-C) or measured by... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 48-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Generally Yes: Hdl is a class of lipoprotein particles that have a variety of functions which, collectively, reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (cvd). The most no... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 49-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
No Difference: There is no difference in the hdl-c response to regular olive oil or extra virgin olive oil.
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 17-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Big dose less effect: Many physicians prefer a daily dose of 5, 000-8, 000 iu of vitamin d3. A once weekly dose of 50, 000 iu is safe, but not as helpful due to poor absorp... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 22-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Body Mass Index: Calculating the body mass index (bmi) is the most common way people distinguish "overweight" from "obese". Using a bmi chart values 18.5 - 24.9 are co... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 49-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Particle Problems: This lipid panel is common and often hides a greater problem. As tg rises the number of LDL particles rises. However, when tg is high the amount of ch... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 34-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
136 - 164 pounds: At healthy male, 5 feet 8 inches tall, should weigh approximately 136 - 164 pounds. Mean weight would be approximately 147 pounds.
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 42-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Probably: Green coffee appears to be safe based on the limited research that has been done so far. In clinical research, no serious side effects were reported. ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 50-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Noninvasive Imaging: Atherosclerosis begins when the artery wall thickens due to modifiable (high LDL particle levels, smoking or high blood pressure ) or non-modifiable (... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 32-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Several Options: Several things to consider. Eliminate things that lower HDL cholesterol (hdl-c) like smoking. Maintain regular exercise. Modest alcohol intake can inc... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 37-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Eat Well, 1 MVI (multivitamin) day: Most of our nutritional needs can be satisfied by eating a diet of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains prepared with minimal processing. Severa... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 41-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes, But ....: You can have milk, but need information. First, identify the problem. Possible causes include; genetic (familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combin... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 41-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Find and Fix Causes: First, identify the problem. Possible causes include; genetic (familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia) and non-genetic (insul... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 55-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
LDL-P is Concerning: Data from multiple studies show elevated LDL-P (greater than 1300) is significantly predictive of increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk even if ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 28-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Cholesterol in HDL: Lipoprotein particles carry cholesterol and triglycerides in the circulation. These particles vary in size, density, types of protein on the outer su... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Questionable: Lipid values obtained by finger sticks often differ substantially from standard blood venipuncture. Fingerstick values may be acceptable for general s... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 30-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Get it checked: Given your description i recommend you see your primary care physician. From your question, an ultrasound of the abdominal aorta should be considered... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
1 (up to 2) weeks: Statins clear the blood rapidly once daily dosing has stopped. While everyone's metabolism is unique, you should expect the medication will be out of ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 45-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Examine ingredients: Although nutritional supplements are chosen primarily for their active ingredients, the other ingredients (excipients) needed to make the tablet, caps... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 35-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Lipoprotein Estimate: A lipid profile measures blood cholesterol and triglycerides (tg) carried inside lipoprotein particles (vldl, ldl, hdl). Tg is used to estimate vldl,... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 24-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes: Aforvir is a brand of cetirizine, a medication for allergies, that can be taken safely with Simvastatin after dinner.
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 28-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Statin - Simvastatin: Zocor is the brand name for simvastatin, one of several "statin" medications that inhibit hmg co-a reductase, the rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 38-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes: The ldl-c level is very high and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Given your description he should be seen promptly by his tre... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 28-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Genetic Traits: Heredity refers to characteristics that are passed from one generation to the next via dna, a molecule that encodes genetic information. Some inherite... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 28-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Test For Smoking: Cotinine is a metabolite of nicotine used to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers. Cotinine increases in proportion to nicotine exposure with most toba... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 41-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes with good diet: From an exercise perspective swimming is an excellent activity for burning calories, increasing strength, improving flexibility and enhancing cardiova... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 21-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Depends on Particles: Cardiovascular (cvd) risk is related to the number of LDL and HDL particles (ldl-p, hdl-p). Ldl can be estimated by cholesterol (ldl-c) or measured by... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 43-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes: Halls drops do not contain decongestants that can increase blood pressure.
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 17-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
It Depends: Your level of cardiovascular risk (high, moderate, or low) is the first thing to consider. High risk patients are treated to ldl-c < 100 or < 70. If y... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 46-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes: Non-invasive imaging options include coronary calcium score (ccs) and carotid ultrasound for intima-media thickness (cimt). Ccs quantifies calcium in ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 29-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
LDL Particle Problem: Ldl is a lipoprotein that can be measured by cholesterol (ldl-c) or particle number (ldl-p). Because cholesterol in LDL is highly variable, ldl-c ofte... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 34-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
High due to LDL-P: High triglycerides (tg) and low hdl-c are markers for high LDL particle number (ldl-p). As tg rise ldl-p rises. However, when tg is high the amount of... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 37-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Statin needed: Your ebct indicates you have early vascular disease (>75th percentile for age, gender). Ldl cholesterol (ldl-c) is commonly used to "estimate" the num... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 43-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
USP Supplements: Lovaza is an fda approved fish oil (omega-3 fatty acid) medication. Due to cost many people seek an alternative omega-3 preparation. One way to choose... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 48-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Need Information: Because cholesterol in LDL and HDL particles is highly variable LDL cholesterol (ldl-c) levels often differ from ldl-p levels. When ldl-c and ldl-p di... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 39-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Evaluate particles: High triglyceride (tg), low hdl-c and resonable ldl-c is a common problem. As tg rises the number of LDL particles rises. However, when tg is high the... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 36-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Maintain: Maintain a healthy lifestyle (ideal body weight, exercise 30-60 minutes daily, eat a healthy diet).
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 36-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Cholesterol: It's a myth that: cholesterol testing is frequently inaccurate in determining LDL and HDL levels.
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 30-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Many Considerations: High triglyceride (tg), low hdl-c is a common problem. First, identify the problem. Possible causes include; genetic (familial combined hyperlipidemia... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 18-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Find and Fix Causes: The first step is to determine if the LDL is elevated due to an acquired medical condition. If treatable conditions are identified i would manage thos... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 54-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes - No Problems: You can take both of these together with not impact on absorbing either vitamin / supplement.
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 46-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
No: Flax seed oil has not been shown to have any significant impact on blood lipid levels.
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 50-year-old female asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Limit Amount: Depending on the amount consumed alcohol can increase blood sugar and worsen lipid / lipoprotein problems. If possible, abstain from alcohol for sever... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 42-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
It Can Be: Immediate and extended release Niacin are the most effective formulations for lowering cholesterol. For comparable efficacy a higher doses of slow rel... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 36-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Myth: Myth: kidney failure occurs if 1 kidney fails. Truth: kidney failure occurs when both kidneys fail.
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 55-year-old male asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Fix cause or niacin: Lipoprotein (a), also known as lp(a), is an LDL particle with an extra protein, apolipoprotein (a), attached to it. Increased lp(a) is most commonly i... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 36-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Yes: Long term diet changes to that assist in decreasing cholesterol and triglyceride include: limiting saturated fat and trans fats; increasing intake of ... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 38-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Before age 10 in FH : Familial hypercholesterolemia (fh) is a genetic disorder causing decreased clearance of LDL from blood. Current nih recommendations call for all child... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.
A 40-year-old member asked:
Dr. William Cromwell
Clinical Lipidology 36 years experience
Unusual over 100: Hdl cholesterol (hdl-c) levels over 100 are vary uncommon. In general, high hdl-c may be the result of genetics (hyperalphalipoproteinemia), exercise,... Read More
Created for people with ongoing healthcare needs but benefits everyone.

Testimonials
Recommendations and Thank you notes are endorsements given from patients or other doctors.

4
Recommendations
767
Thank you notes
Dec 11, 2012
Very accurate & Thorough. Impressive.
Apr 30, 2013
Very high quality opinions.
HealthTap member
Mar 30, 2015
Dr. Cromwell is an amazing doctor! #nationaldoctorsday2015 #virtualflower1
HealthTap member
This was very helpful. Thanks! Just had Coratid Subclavian bypass bc both 100% blocked yet it’s in my aorta so this Info is very helpful. Have familial high cholesterol. Thank you very much!
HealthTap member
Thanks for your quick reply! Thanks dr. for your quick response. Am trying to see some lipidologist here in UAE. If you have aby idea then pls share. Am concerned.
HealthTap member
Thanks for your quick reply! I have been taking lipitor for 3 years and had many adverse reactions not making the connection I stopped taking it I feel grate.

Education & Training

Medical/Graduate school

Louisiana State University School of Medicine
Graduated 1987MD

Residency

Regional Medical Center of Hopkins County

Residency

Trover Clinic Foundation, Regional Medical Center

Awards

Mead Johnson Graduate Fellowship, American Academy of Family Physicians
Fellow, American Heart Association Council on Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Fellow, National Lipid Association

Affiliations

National Lipid Association (Southeast chapter)
American Heart Association
National Lipid Association

Publications

Measurement issues related to lipoprotein heterogeneity.
Development of tachyphylaxis among patients taking HMG CoA reductase inhibitors.
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